EPT Electrolytic Plasma Technology

Electrolytic Plasma Technology [EPT], is an effective surface engineering tool that combines the cleaning and coating of metals. During EPT processing, DC voltage is applied to the electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte, which produces plasma at the surface of the work piece. Thermal, chemical, electrical and mechanical effects imparted by EPT to the work piece create unique surface characteristics.

When utilized for the cleaning of metals, Electrolytic Plasma Technology effectively removes scale, dirt, rust, lubricants, and other types of contamination from the surface. In addition, the surface of the metal is left with a micro-rough profile structure that greatly enhances adherence properties for coating.

cleaning

Surface Morphology after Cleaning

EPT is an environmentally friendly process that eliminates the need for harmful acids or chemicals that could be hazardous to both workers and the environment.

 

Electrolytic Plasma Technology deposits dense, conformal coatings to various metals and alloys. These coatings can be deposited at rates of up to 2 μm/sec. and thickness of the coating can be controlled as per the needs of the customer. The adhesion characteristics of CAP applied coatings are very high and coated materials can be formed, and even drawn, without worrying about delamination of the coating. EPT coatings can be applied as pure metals, layered metals, or alloys, and can be applied to materials of a large variety of shapes and sizes.

Cross section of a CAP applied Zn coating.

Cross section of a CAP applied Zn coating.

 

Mechanical Properties such as tensile, torsion and ductility properties are not altered during the EPT process. The coating forms a metallurgical bond with the substrate which gives it excellent adhesion. In addition, no brittle intermetallic layers are formed in the coating (below).

CAP_Interface

EDS Analysis of interface between CAP applied Zinc coating and base metal (steel).

 

EPT coatings are very effective against corrosion. In fact, EPT coatings from CAP have been proven to last twice as long as HDG coatings of comparable coating weights in salt spray tests (According to ASTM B117).

Comparison of corrosion resistance of CAP applied Zinc Coating vs. HDG coating.

Comparison of corrosion resistance of CAP applied Zinc Coating vs. HDG coating (ASTM B117).

 

Surface morphology of the coating eliminates the use of borax, phosphating, or other lubricant carriers during drawing. It also helps us in directly drawing a rod to a small wire size.

Surface morphology of CAP applied Zinc coating

The CAP process uses electricity and benign electrolytes for cleaning, eliminating the need for strong acids. This greatly reduces the cost of the process by reducing/eliminating the need for toxic materials handling, storage, and disposal of these harsh chemicals.

At present, the metal industry offers many options for the cleaning and coating of metals. Listed below are some of the reasons the CAP process should be considered when searching for an alternative to the more conventional methods.

 

EPT

Acid Picking

Harmful Chemicals

No

Only benign Salts (NaHCO3) and water are required

Yes

Large volumes of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and/or nitric acid are often used.

additional chemicals

No

Additional chemicals treatments are not needed. No need for neutralization or redundant rinse systems

Yes

Lime, borax, and ZnSO4 are needed to neutralize, preserve, and/or provide a lubricant carrier.

handling/disposal of hazardous liquids

No

CAP's cleaning process uses no chemicals that are considered hazardous.

Yes

Large amounts of harsh acid, rinse water (acidic), and other chemicals must be neutralized, disposed of, or reclaimed.

solid waste byproducts

No

A fine textured scale powder (iron oxide) is the only byproduct of cleaning; a simple filtration system is all that is needed.

Yes

A toxic acidic sludge must be handled, stored, disposed of, and/or processed for acid reclamation.

 

Single Step Processing

Basic treatments methods for metal include Electrical (E), Thermal (T), Chemical (C) and Mechanical (M). Existing technologies include combination two or three of these methods. As illustrated below, the CAP process combines all of the basic treatment methods, thereby increasing its effectiveness.

Conventional Methods

E

Electrical

C

Chemical

T

Thermal

M

Mechanical

Combinations of Methods

E+C

E+M

E+C+T

C+T

T+M

E+T

C+T+M

C+M

CAP Technologies

E+C+T+M

CAP Technologies Inforgraphic
The CAP Process is the only process available that combines all four convential cleaning methods into one
 

Control Of The Surface Profile

Surface profile of a material is important for various industrial applications for example to obtain adhesive coatings. Plasma processing of materials provides a capability to control surface profile easily by varying processing parameters and the aqueous electrolytic media.

Time Efficiency

Time required for cleaning and coating is less than other conventional operations resulting in a smaller operation. In cleaning of steel wire having patented scale, in line cleaning speeds up to 180 ft/min have been achieved. In coating, generally, the deposition rate is approximately 1-2 μ/sec, which can be controlled by process parameters.

In line capability of cleaning and coating makes this technology time efficient and could eliminate the need for large batch processing areas in certain applications, such as the pickling of wire rod.

Flexibility of Process Equipment

The CAP process can be used to clean and coat metals of various size and shapes. Please visit the products section for details.

Simple Setup

The CAP process is simple and requires less floor space as compared to conventional cleaning methods such as acid cleaning.

 

EPT

Acid Picking

hydrogen embrittlement

No

CAP's EPT process has been proven NOT to cause hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of the work piece. These tests were conducted as per the specification of ASTM F519-05.

Yes

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a real concern due to the steel absorbing hydrogen. This jeopardizes the strength of the steel. Additional measures must be taken to prevent/reverse this process.

loss of steel

No

CAP's process does not cause any significant loss of steel. In fact, it is estimated that 30-40% of the scale is reconstituted to alpha-iron and deposited back to the surface

Yes

Pickling typically causes between 2%-3% loss of the steel. This can be prevented with other chemical additives, but these chemicals add to the bottom line.

100% cleaning capability

Yes

CAP's process can clean steel to 100% with no material loss.

No

Pickling generally cleans to a level of ~95%. At this point the acids attack the base metal resulting in loss of the product.

maintenance

No

Other than filtration and consumables, maintenance of the CAP process is minimal.

Yes

Requires constant monitoring and maintenance of acid solution. A delicate chemical balance must be kept for efficiency of the process.


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  • CAP Technologies
  • 609 Centerville Street
  • Denham Springs, LA
  • 70726

Office: 225.753.2200

Fax: 225.753.2283

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ACCT – Advanced Cleaning and Coating Technology
The groundbreaking, green alternative to surface texturing, cleaning, and coating of metals.